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Academic Quotes

The first problem for all of us, men and women, is not to learn, but to unlearn - Gloria Steinem

The act of unlearning is an excellent form of learning. Infact, you will need the skills of unlearning if you intend to become an expert in your desired field.

Do yourself a favor by unlearning, learning and re-learning on a daily basis

If you don't design your own life plan, chances are you'll fall into someone else's plan. And guess what they have planned for you? Not much - Jim Rohn

There's something special about you. It doesn't matter whether you work for a company or someone; what matters is the amount of investment you've made on yourself.

Investing in yourself is the best life plan you can design for your future

Smile - Len Academy

Peace begins with a smile - Mother Teresa

Never underestimate the power of your smile. It can lift up the depressed, improve the mood of the downtrodden and even discourage a suicidal attack. Also remember that your smile makes you more beautiful

Smile always for your own good and the good of others

The only person who is educated is the one who has learned how to learn …and change - Carl Rogers

To perfect your learning process, you must learn, unlearn and re-learn. Infact, we all need to learn how to unlearn those vices we know about ourselves.

Do you know that seeing the devastating consequences of vices (perhaps in movies or real-life) can initiate the unlearning processes in one who does such?

Start where you are. Use what you have. Do what you can - Arthur Ashe

Start now. You've got all it takes to achieve greatness, so no environment can limit you. Just begin something, give in your best and don't stop.

Remember, don't stop giving your best if you truly desire greatness. Nothing can stop you except yourself


In a food chain, the primary consumers are classified under trophic level  _____.

  • A. Zero

  • B. One

  • C. Two

  • D. Three

  • E. Four

  • F. Five

ANSWER: Two

In an ecological pyramid, the trophic level of an organism is defined as that position which an organism occupies in a food chain or food web. These positions (trophic levels) include:

  • Trophic level 1 (producers)

  • Trophic level 2 (primary consumer)

  • Trophic level 3 (secondary consumer)

  • Trophic level 4 (tertiary consumers)

  • Trophic level 5 (decomposers)

Please read on food chain here

Cold blooded animals are referred to as _____.

  • A. Homeotherms

  • B. Endotherms

  • C. Poilokitherms

  • D. Ectotherms

  • E. Thermotherms

  • F. None of the above

ANSWER: Ectotherms

Cold blooded animals are also referred to as ectotherms or poikilotherms or poikilothermic animals because they depend on their external environment towards regulating their bodily temperature. Fishes, amphibians and reptiles are all ectotherms.

Please read more on the characteristics of reptiles here.

Conversely, humans are endotherms or homeothermic animals because their temperature is regulated internally via a process termed homeostasis.

Please read more on homeostasis here.

All reptiles are vertebrates.

  • A. True

  • B. False

ANSWER: True

All reptiles are vertebrates and this is one of their main characteristics.

Vertebrates are animals with backbone or vertebral column.

Please read more on reptiles and their characteristics here.

_____ cells are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts.

  • A. Osteocytes
  • B. Chondrocytes
  • C. Chondroblasts
  • D. Osteoclasts
  • E. Osteoprogenitor cells
  • F. Osteoblastic

ANSWER: Osteoprogenitor cells

Osteoprogenitor cells are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts. Osteoblasts are cells responsible for the formation of bones. For this reason, they are important in the repair of broken bones (fracture).

Please read on Bone and Bone Cells here

_____ is a bone that constitute the axial skeleton.

  • A. Clavicle
  • B. Scapula
  • C. Patella
  • D. Radius
  • E. Sternum
  • F. Femur

ANSWER: Sternum

The axial skeleton in humans is found along the midline of their body. They include the following bones:

  1. Skull
  2. Vertebral column
  3. Sternum
  4. Ribs

Axial Skeleton - Len Academy

Please read on Types and Classification of Bones here

Which of the following is false concerning cartilages and bones?

  • A. Cartilage does not have a direct blood supply while bones have direct blood supply
  • B. The process of ossification replaces a cartilage to bone
  • C. The protein that makes up cartilage is called chondrin while that that makes up bone is called ossein
  • D. Cartilage grows from both ends while bones grow from one of its epiphysis
  • E. They both have living cells within them
  • F. Haversian system is absent in cartilage but present in bones

ANSWER: Cartilage grows from both ends while bones grow from one of its epiphysis

A cartilage grows from only one of it's end while a bone grows from both ends (called epiphysis)

Understanding the differences between cartilages and bones will give you an insight on this question.

Please read on the differences here

A diagram showing the movement of energy through a food chain is called a _____.

  • A. Food Chain
  • B. Food Web
  • C. Food Energy
  • D. Food Link
  • E. Food Flow
  • F. Food Pyramid

ANSWER: Food Pyramid

Food Pyramid

The above diagram shows a food pyramid.

Please read on the explanation of the above diagram here

Which of the following is NOT a part of the wrist bones (or carpal bones)?

  • A. Cuboid
  • B. Scaphoid
  • C. Hamate
  • D. Triquetral
  • E. Pisiform
  • F. Trapezium

ANSWER: Cuboid

Carpal Bones - Len Academy

Cuboid is a part of the ankle bones (or tarsal bones) and NOT wrist bones (or carpal bones).

The 8 carpal bones include:

  1. Scaphoid
  2. Lunate
  3. Triquetral
  4. Pissiform
  5. Trapezium
  6. Trapezoid
  7. Capitate
  8. Hamate

Please read on all the bones on the human body here

The statements below are true concerning arteries except _____.

  • A. The arterial wall has 4 layers

  • B. Tunica Adventitia is the outermost layer of an artery

  • C. Aorta is the largest artery in the human body

  • D. Pulmunary artery conveys deoxygenated blood

  • E. Internal bleeding will occur when a deeply located artery is broken

  • F. Arterial vascular disorders are worsened in people with diabetes and renal failure

ANSWER: The arterial wall has 4 layers

Layers of an artery - Len Academy

The arterial wall does not have 4 layers; rather it has 3. These are:

  1. Tunica Adventitia or Tunica Externa: It is the outermost layer of an artery; and consists mainly of collagen fibres and connective tissues.

  2. Tunica Media: It's the middle layer of an artery consisting of smooth muscles and elastic fibres.

  3. Tunica Intima or Tunica Internal: It's the inner layer of an artery lined by a smooth muscle called endothelium. It contains a fine network of connective tissue.

Please read more on the layers of an artery here

The following statements are true concerning blood vessels except _____.

  • A. They are comprised of arteries, veins and capillaries

  • B. Problems associated with blood vessels are called vascular disorders

  • C. All veins carry blood towards the heart

  • D. Capillaries are found at cellular level

  • E. Arteries usually divide to form arterioles

  • F. Arterioles give rise to capillaries

ANSWER: All veins carry blood towards the heart

Actually, most veins carry blood to the heart except one; and that's the pulmunary vein.

Note: The pulmunary veins carry deoxygenated blood away from the heart into the lungs where it becomes oxygenated.

Food Pyramid - Len Academy

The above diagram shows a _____.

  • A. Food Chain

  • B. Food Web

  • C. Food Flow

  • D. Food Energy

  • E. Food Pyramid

  • F. Food Hierarchy

ANSWER: Food Pyramid

Food Pyramid is a diagram that shows the movement of energy through a food chain.

You can read more on food chain in an Ecosystem here

Note: The energy associated with a food pyramid decreases along its path. For this reason, the diagram showing a food pyramid is always narrow at its top (tertiary consumers) and broad at its bottom (producers).

Anything that elicits a physiological response from an organism is termed _____.

  • A. Response

  • B. Irritability

  • C. Adaptation

  • D. Competition

  • E. Stimulus

  • F. Action potential

ANSWER: Stimulus

A stimulus may be defined as anything that elicits a physiological response from an organism.

As an instance, our body may react to the excessive heat from the sun by producing sweat; which inturn cools the body from the sun's rays.

Note: Stimulus can either be external or internal.

The sense organs (eyes, nose, ears, tongue and skin) acts as sensory receptors to external Stimulus.

Please read more on homeostasis here

You can read the basic characteristics of life here

Which of the following molecule is utilized directly as energy in the human body?

  • A. Glucose

  • B. Carbohydrate

  • C. Starch

  • D. Adenosine Mono Phosphate

  • E. Adenosine Di Phosphate 

  • F. Adenosine Tri Phosphate

ANSWER: Adenosine Tri Phosphate

Adenosine Tri Phosphate or ATP is the energy currency in the human body. It is derived from the breakdown of glucose in the mitochondria of cells duing aerobic respiration.

In simple term, when we eat carbohydrates (e.g rice), it's broken down into glucose through the action of certain enzymes.

Glucose is further broken down in the mitchondria of cells to produce energy (in form of ATP). For this reason, the mitochondria is often referred to as the power house of a cell.

Which of the following is not a basic characteristics of life?

  • A. Locomotion

  • B. Competition

  • C. Adaptation

  • D. Irritability

  • E. Nutrition

  • F. Death

ANSWER: Locomotion

Locomotion is not a basic characteristics of life because it's carried out mainly by animals and not plants.

Locomotion involves the movement of an entire organism from one point to another; and this is quite different from movement. Infact, movement is a basic characteristics of life and not locomotion.

Below are the basic characteristics of life (carried out by all living organisms):

  • Movement

  • Respiration

  • Nutrition

  • Irritability or Sensitivity

  • Growth

  • Excretion

  • Reproducion

  • Death

  • Adaptation

  • Competition

Please read more on the basic characteristics of life here

The final organisms in a food chain are best referred to as _____.

  • A. Saprophytes

  • B. Parasites

  • C. Commensals

  • D. Decomposers

  • E. Tertiary consumers

  • F. Quatenary consumers

Answer: Decomposers

The decomposers will always end the food chain. Fungi and bacteria are great examples of decomposers.

Please read on Food Chain here

Which of the following is a category of long bones?

  • A. Stunted long bones
  • B. Reduced long bones
  • C. Giant long bones
  • D. Bended long bones
  • E. Curved long bones
  • F. Elongated long bones

ANSWER: Elongated Long Bones

The three categories of long bones are:

  1. Elongated Long Bones: Examples are femur and humerus.

  2. Miniature Long Bones: Examples are metacarpals and metatarsals.

  3. Modified Long Bones: An example is the clavicle.

Please read more on Bones here

The end product of photosynthesis is _____.

  • A. O2
  • B. C2C5OH
  • C. H2O
  • D. CO2
  • E. C6H12O6
  • F. C2H5COOH

ANSWER: C6H12O6

C6H12O6 is the chemical formula for (simple) sugars.

During photosynthesis, plant utilizes carbon(IV)oxide (CO2) and water (H2O) in the presence of sunlight and Chlorophyll to produce sugar (C6H12O6); as oxygen (O​​​​​2) is given off as a by-product.

Please read on Autotrophic Mode of Nutrition here.

Food web - Len Academy

The above diagram illustrates a _____.

  • A. Food Chain
  • B. Food Web
  • C. Food Pyramid
  • D. Food Link
  • E. Food Hub
  • F. Food zone

ANSWER: Food web

A food web shows multiple food chain linked together.

Please read on food Web and the explanation of the above diagram here

The living cells that makes up cartilages are called _____.

  • A. Osteocytes
  • B. Osteoblasts
  • C. Osteoclasts
  • D. Chondroblasts
  • E. Chrondocytes
  • F. Osteoprogenitor cells

ANSWER: Chondroblasts

Cartilages are comprised of living cells called chondroblasts.

Chondroblasts may contain very little or no calcium and phosphates

Which of the following statement is incorrect with regards to chitin?

  • A. Ecdysis is a term associated with chitin
  • B. It is a skeletal material
  • C. It is a type of skeleton
  • D. It is present outside the organism
  • E. It does not grow when the organism grows
  • It is present in ants

ANSWER: It is a type of skeleton

Chitin is not a type of skeleton; Instead, it is a skeletal material.

Think of skeletal material as a substance in which a skeleton is composed of

Other materials in which a skeleton can be composed of are Bones and Cartilages.

Types of skeleton on the other hand refers to:

Endoskeleton: Found inside the organism

Exoskeleton: Found outside the organism

Hydrostatic Skeleton: A fluid-like skeleton found in earthworms

Please read on Skeletal Materials here

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