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The first problem for all of us, men and women, is not to learn, but to unlearn - Gloria Steinem

The act of unlearning is an excellent form of learning. Infact, you will need the skills of unlearning if you intend to become an expert in your desired field.

Do yourself a favor by unlearning, learning and re-learning on a daily basis

If you don't design your own life plan, chances are you'll fall into someone else's plan. And guess what they have planned for you? Not much - Jim Rohn

There's something special about you. It doesn't matter whether you work for a company or someone; what matters is the amount of investment you've made on yourself.

Investing in yourself is the best life plan you can design for your future

Smile - Len Academy

Peace begins with a smile - Mother Teresa

Never underestimate the power of your smile. It can lift up the depressed, improve the mood of the downtrodden and even discourage a suicidal attack. Also remember that your smile makes you more beautiful

Smile always for your own good and the good of others

The only person who is educated is the one who has learned how to learn …and change - Carl Rogers

To perfect your learning process, you must learn, unlearn and re-learn. Infact, we all need to learn how to unlearn those vices we know about ourselves.

Do you know that seeing the devastating consequences of vices (perhaps in movies or real-life) can initiate the unlearning processes in one who does such?

Start where you are. Use what you have. Do what you can - Arthur Ashe

Start now. You've got all it takes to achieve greatness, so no environment can limit you. Just begin something, give in your best and don't stop.

Remember, don't stop giving your best if you truly desire greatness. Nothing can stop you except yourself


Which of the following is not a characteristic of the two-party system?

  • A. It is democratic in nature

  • B. There isn't a third party

  • C. The two parties are always dominant in the political terrain

  • D. The president must emerge from one of both parties

  • E. It encourages freedom of expression at the press

  • F. It presents a choice of candidates to the people

ANSWER: There isn't a third party

We do have a third party in a two-party system. However, these are obscure and will seldom wield a political position.

Meanwhile, understand that the 'third party' in a two-party system comprises of other political parties. These group of parties typically will not win an electoral office during election.

However, the characteristics in the above question gives us a clue to what a two-party system entail.

In a two-party system,  only 2 political parties are present in countries where they are practised.

  • A. True

  • B. False

ANSWER: False

In a two-party system, other political parties may be present but the main point is:

The 'other political parties' will rarely get political offices after the outcome of elections.

In simple terms, only two political parties dominate the political landscape in countries where they are practised.

In a country like Nigeria (as at 2018), most political offices are held by two political parties. These are:

  1. Peoples Democratic Party (PDP)

  2. All Progressive Congress (APC)

In United States of America, Democratic Party and the Republicans dominate the political system.

Please read on two-party system and its characteristics here

A type of democracy whereby shura is practiced is termed _____ democracy

  • A. Direct

  • B. Indirect

  • C. Constitutional

  • D. Islamic

  • E. Authoritarian

  • F. Participatory

ANSWER: Islamic

In islamic democracy, the leaders engages in a special for of consultation practiced by prophet Mohammed. This practice is termed 'shura'.

Understand that the Islamic law serves as the cornerstone to which Islamic democracy is laid.

A type of democracy whereby the people vote a bill into law is termed _____ democracy

  • A. Direct

  • B. Indirect

  • C. Constitutional

  • D. Islamic

  • E. Authoritarian

  • F. Participatory

ANSWER: Direct

In direct democracy, the lawmakers (house of senate and house of representatives) are not required. Rather, the people directly vote a bill into law.

In reality, direct democracy isn't feasible in a large society.

Please read more on types of democracy here

In democracy, every citizen has got the right to vote and be vote for. Also, the principle one man one vote in this regard refers to which characteristic of democracy?

  • A. Separation of power

  • B. Freedom of expression

  • C. Constitutional supremacy

  • D. Rule of Law

  • E. Political equality

  • F. Popular sovereignty

ANSWER: Political equality

Political equality is a characteristic of democracy whereby every citizen has got the right to vote and be vote for. Also, one man is entitled to one vote in this regard.

Importantly, we should not disenfranchise ourselves by not utilizing both political rights: that is, right to vote and be voted for.

Please read more on the characteristics of democracy here

Democracy is defined as a government formed by the consent of the governed.

  • A. True

  • B. False

ANSWER: True

Democracy is a form of government that gives power to the people. It has been defined in various ways:

Democracy is defined as a government by the people in whom ultimate and supreme power lies; and is exercised through their votes in a free and fair electoral system.

Democracy is also defined as a government formed by the consent of the governed.

Democracy has popularly been defined as government of the people, by the people and for the people.

Please read more on democracy here

Which of the following is not a type of democracy?

  • A. Peripheral democracy

  • B. Direct democracy

  • C. Islamic democracy

  • D. Representative democracy

  • E. Participatory democracy

  • F. Authoritarian democracy

ANSWER: Peripheral democracy

Peripheral Democracy is not a type of democracy.

Democracy is a system or form of government that focuses more on the people (citizens) of a nation or state. It occurs in different types and can be practiced in different forms.

Please read on the types or forms of democracy here

Which of the following is not a characteristics of democracy?

  • A. Kingdom supracy

  • B. Rule of law

  • C. Political equality

  • D. Separation of power

  • E. Freedom of expression

  • F. Popular sovereignty

ANSWER: Kingdom supremacy

Kingdom supremacy is not a characteristics of democracy. Most often, kingdoms are associated with monarchy or traditional forms of government.

You can read on the forms of government here

Please read on characteristics of democracy here

The following are functions of government except _____.

  • A. To provide free money for her citizens

  • B. To make laws as contained in the constitution

  • C. To defend and protect the lives and properties of her citizens

  • D. To provide a justice system

  • E. To generate revenue for the country

  • F. To maintain law and order through the law enforcement agencies

ANSWER: To provide free money for her citizens

The government typically will not provide free money for her citizens except in extreme cases of an epidemic or an event that prevents the citizens to work.

Ideally, what the government does is to provide job opportunities for her citizens through the private and public sectors. The government also generates national revenue which can be utilized into creating more jobs for her citizens.

Please read more on the functions of government here

Government may be defined as an agency or machinery or instrument that is established to manage the general welfare of the people that make up a country.

In the above statement, government is defined _____.

  • A. As a process

  • B. As an act of governing

  • C. As an institution of a state

  • D. As an academic field o study

  • E. As a political wheel

  • F. As a machine of movement

ANSWER: As an institution of a state

Although the term 'government' have got different definitions, the above question defines government as an institution of a state.

The institutions or agencies or machineries or instruments through which a government carry out the above definition in a country or state are:

  1. The Executive
  2. The Legislature
  3. The Judiciary

Please read more the various definitions of government here

Which of the following statement is false regarding the constitution?

  • A. No one is above the constitution, even the president or prime minister of a country

  • B. A constitution can be written or unwritten

  • C. The constitution consists of the fundamental human rights of citizens of a nation

  • D. The constitution does not necessarily allocate power to the different arms of government

  • E. The constitution upholds the people's sovereignty

  • F. A good constitution is neither too rigid not too flexible

ANSWER: The constitution does not necessarily allocate power to the different arms of government

A constitution is defined as the supreme law that specifies the government of a nation, the distribution of power to the different arms of government within the nation and the fundamental human rights of her citizens.

Please read more on the introduction to constitution here

A form of government whereby each state that makes up a country has the power to govern itself and manage it's own resources is known as _____.

  • A. Democracy
  • B. Communism
  • C. Federalism
  • D. Meritocracy
  • E. Autocracy
  • F. Oligarchy

ANSWER: Federalism

True Federalism is said to be practiced in United States of America.

America has 50 states and each of these states have their unique sets of customs and laws. They also manage their own resources and may give remittance to the unifying Federal Government.

Note: The Federal Government have their own laws which may override those of the states.

You can read on the forms of government here

The following are examples of pressure group in Nigeria except _____.

  • A. End SARS

  • B. Committee for the Defence of Human Rights (CDHR)

  • C. Odua Peoples Congress (OPC)

  • D. Christian Association of Nigeria (CAN)

  • E. Operation Feed the Nation (OFN)

  • H. National Association of Nigerian Students (NANS)

ANSWER: Operation Feed the Nation (OFN)

OFN is not a pressure group in Nigeria. Rather, it's a program organized by the Nigerian Government in an attempt to feed all resident citizens of Nigeria.

You can read more on pressure groups here.

Which of the following is not an ethnic pressure group in Nigeria?

  • A. Bring Back our Girls (BBOG)

  • B. Afenifere

  • C. Ohanaeze Ndigbo

  • D. Middle Belt Forum (MBF)

  • E. Arewa Consultative Forum

  • F. Ijaw Youth Council (IYC)

ANSWER: Bring Back our Girls (BBOG)

Ethnic pressure groups in Nigeria are Regional, that is; they are found in the Western, Southern, Eastern, Northern and Central parts of Nigeria.

You can read more on ethnic pressure groups here.

The Bring Back our Girls (BBOG) pressure group is an example of a national or global pressure group (and not ethnic or regional). It was created when 276 chibok school girls were captured by the so-called Boko Haram terrorist on the night of April 14th - 15th, 2014.

At that time, the BBOG pressure group comprised of many Nigerians, including other dignitaries from around the world. For instance, the first ladies of some powerful countries alongside globally recognized celebrities became a part of the BBOG Group. In fact, Nigerian legendary musician, 2face Idibia made a song titled 'Bring Back Our Girls' during this period. He featured other African Artists in this song.

The followings are ways to achieve gender equality except _____.

  • A. Education of the girl child

  • B. Encouraging women to go into power

  • C. Putting a stop to child marriage

  • D. Encouraging women to vote for women during elections

  • E. Empowering girls and women

  • F. Making laws that prohibits sexual harassment

ANSWER: Encouraging women to vote for women during elections

Encouraging women to vote for women isn't a way of achieving gender equality. Rather, every eligible voter (men and women alike) are expected to vote in the choice of political candidate they consider most qualified and reputable for an office. They should neither be bribed, forced nor sentimental in this regard.

Please read more on gender equality here.

The absence of government in a country or state is referred to as _____.

  • A. Chaos
  • B. Doom
  • C. Oligarchy
  • D. Autocracy
  • E. Anarchy
  • F. Meritocracy

ANSWER: Anarchy

Anarchy is one the forms of government and it's defined as the absence of government in a society or country or state or community.

An instance of anarchy occurred in Somalia in 1991 after a dictator named Said Barre was overthrowned. This made Somalia disintegrate into fractions with local warlords imposing their authority over their land.

The definition of democracy as 'Government of the people, by the people and for the people' is a concept of _____.

  • A. John F. Kennedy
  • B. Martin Luther King Jr.
  • C. Aristotle
  • D. George W. Bush
  • E. Kamala Harris
  • F. Abraham Lincoln

ANSWER: Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln is a great leader and the 16th president of the United States of America (1861 - 1865). He led America through it's bloodiest civil war and when America suffered her greatest moral, constitutional and political crisis. He was assassinated on 15th April, 1865 at the Peterson House, Washington DC.

Abraham Lincoln made this statement at Gettysburg for the soldiers that sacrificed their lives in order 'that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth'

Please read on the Characteristics, Functions and Importance of Government here

A form of government where the wealthy rule the people is known as _____.

  • A. Plutocracy
  • B. Timocracy
  • C. Technocracy
  • D. Meritocracy
  • E. Richocracy
  • F. Autocracy

ANSWER: Plutocracy

Plutocracy is a form of government where the wealthy rule. It falls under a form of government called Aristocracy.

Note: Aristocracy may also be referred to as Oligarchy. It is one of the forms of government while Plutocracy is a type/kind of Aristocracy.

Other types of Aristocracy are:

  • Technocracy: The technical experts and educated rule the people
  • Timocracy: Those with honors rule the people

Please read on the various forms of government here.

Which of the following countries isn't a result of the disintegration of the Soviet Union (USSR)?

  • A. Malta
  • B. Latvia
  • C. Moldova
  • D. Estonia
  • E. Georgia
  • F. Uzbekistan

ANSWER: Malta

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or Soviet Union (USSR) once had a single system of government before its disintegration into 15 different countries in 1991. The countries include:

  1. Armenia
  2. Azerbaijan 
  3. Belarus
  4. Estonia
  5. Georgia
  6. Kazakhstan 
  7. Kyrgyzstan
  8. Latvia
  9. Lithuania
  10. Moldova
  11. Russia
  12. Tajikistan
  13. Turkmenistan
  14. Ukraine
  15. Uzbekistan

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Government topics

Arms of Government: Functions of the Executive, Legislature and Judiciary Scheme of Work for Government, SS1, First Term Scheme of Work for Government, SS1, Second Term Scheme of Work for Government, SS1, Third Term Concept, Advantages and Disadvantages of Multi-Party System Concept, Advantages and Disadvantages of Two-Party System Pressure Group: Types of Pressure Group Characteristics of Pressure Group Constitution - Types of Constitution Government - Scope of Government


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