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Academic Articles

Postulate of the kinetic theory of gases - Chemistry
Contents of the scrotum: Epididymis, Vas deferens, Spermatic cord and Cremaster muscle - Biology
Fun facts in Biology - Biology
Amazing facts on Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy - History
Functions of the network layer of the OSI model - ICT
Network layer of the OSI model - ICT
Transport layer of the OSI model and its characteristics - ICT
Session layer of the OSI model: Functions of session layer - ICT
What is presentation layer of the OSI model? Functions of presentation layer - ICT
Application layer of the OSI model and its functions - ICT
Three-way handshake in TCP - ICT
Stateless connection in UDP explained with examples - ICT
Transport Layer: Functions of layer 4 in networking - ICT
Transport layer: Layer 4 of the OSI model - ICT

A measurement of how much the velocity of an object changes with time is termed _____.

  • A. Displacement

  • B. Acceleration

  • C. Speed

  • D. Momentum

  • E. Velocity-Time graph

  • F. Average velocity


ANSWER: Acceleration

Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity. Acceleration is also defined as the measurement of how much the velocity of an object changes with time.

  • Acceleration = Change in velocity/Change in time


If an object changes velocity after a fixed amount of time, then such acceleration is said to be constant (that is: constant acceleration).



We also have the concept of average acceleration in motion.

Average acceleration is the total change in velocity over a period of time, divided by the duration of that period.

Acceleration is a vector quantity and its Standard International (SI) unit is meter per second (m/s) or meter per second square (m/s2).

Which of the following differentiates velocity from speed?

  • A. Distance

  • B. Time

  • C. Momentum

  • D. Inertia

  • E. Direction

  • F. Distance and Time


ANSWER: Direction

The direction in which an object is moving is what differentiates velocity from speed. In short, velocity is defined as speed in a given direction. It is also defined as the rate of change of displacement.

Please read more on velocity and acceleration here

FA = -FB

FA is the action force while FB is the reaction force.

The above statement expresses _____.

  • A. Force and Acceleration

  • B. Force and Gravity

  • C. Force and Momentum

  • D. Newton's first law of motion

  • E. Newton's second law of motion

  • F. Newton's third law of motion


ANSWER: Newton's third law of motion

Newton's third law states that action and reaction are equal and opposite.

According to the third law of motion, if a body 'A' exerts a force FA on another body 'B', body B will in return exert an equal and opposite force FB on body A. The forces FA and FB are therefore equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.

Please read more on Newton's laws of motion here

The following are solutions to atmospheric pollution except _____.

  • A. Putting in place laws that discourages afforestation

  • B. Prohibition of bush burning

  • C. Implementation of vehicular checks and maintenance on roads

  • D. Industries should be located away from residential areas

  • E. Solar and wind energies should be considered as alternative sources of energy

  • F. Improved use of nitrogen fertilizers should be encouraged


ANSWER: Putting in place laws that discourages afforestation

Atmospheric (or air) pollution is defined as the introduction of harmful or toxic substances into the air. Afforestation is considered as one of the solutions to atmospheric pollution; thus it should be encouraged.

Afforestation simple means the planting of trees. It is highly encouraged as a solution to air pollution. This is true because plants give out oxygen to the atmosphere as a by-product of photosynthesis. In fact, this is the only way oxygen naturally gets back into the atmosphere.

Understand that any process that puts oxygen back into the atmosphere is highly recommended as a solution to air pollution.

Carbon(IV)oxide, ammonia gas, sulphuric gas and chemicals from insecticides are considered as air pollutants.

Please read more on solutions to air pollution here

In commerce, which of the following is false with regards to a commodity?

  • A. A commodity must always have a market value

  • B. Rendered services are also instances of commodities

  • C. Products applicable to commodities can be bought or sold with money

  • D. A commodity must be standardized

  • E. A commodity must be usable upon delivery

  • F. Commodities can be traded in the futures market


ANSWER: Rendered services are also instances of commodities

Commodities are always products (or tangible goods), not services. In fact, a commodity is defined as any product (or tangible good) with market value; and such product can be bought or sold with money.

For an item to be considered a commodity, it must satisfy three conditions. These are:

  1. It must be standardized. In the case of agricultural commodities, they must be in their unprocessed state.

  2. It must be usable upon delivery

  3. The price of a commodity item must vary.

Generally, commodities can be put into two. These are:

  1. Hard commodities: They include goods extracted from the earth crust via mining processes. Examples of such commodities are crude oil, gold, coal and diamond

  2. Soft commodities: They include all products derived from agricultural activities. Examples includes chicken, wheat, fruits and grains.

It is noteworthy to state that certain commodities can be traded in the futures and forex markets respectively. Gold and petroleum (crude oil) are instances in this regard.

Please read more on commodity market here

Answer true of false with regards to the sentence below:

'Humility' is a noun and 'Humble' is an adjective

  • A. True

  • B. False



Humility is used as a noun in sentences. Conversely, the word 'humble' is used as an adjective in a sentence. Below is an example:

His humility made him die for sinners

Humility as used in the sentence is a noun. Recall that a noun is a name of any person, animal, place, thing or activity. Humility in this instance is a virtue (or a 'good' thing).

The humble man died for the sake of love

Humble as used in the sentence is an adjective. An adjective is a word that qualifies or describes a noun. In this instance, the adjective 'humble' describes the personality of the noun (man).

In summary, the noun 'humility' is formed from the adjective 'humble'.

Please read more on nouns formed from adjectives here

A part of a sentence or clause that contains a verb and something concerning the subject within that sentence is termed a/an _____.

  • A. Predicate

  • B. Object

  • C. Adverbial clause

  • D. Adverbial phrase

  • E. Half clause

  • F. Body of adverbial clause


ANSWER: Predicate

A predicate is a part of a sentence or clause that contains a verb and something concerning the subject within that sentence. Consider the sentence below:

The boy ate some rice

  • Subject: The boy

  • Verb: ate

  • Predicate: ate some rice

In simple terms, we can say that a predicate gives more information about the subject and it commences from the verb within that sentence.

The _____ spectrometry experiment conducted on isotopic elements gave a confirmation for the existence of isotopes.

  • A. Mole

  • B. Volume

  • C. Weight

  • D. Number of moles

  • E. Mass

  • F. Amount of substance



Isotopes are defined as elements having the same number of protons (atomic number) but different number of neutrons. In summary, isotopes (or isotopic elements) have got the same atomic number but different mass number.

The existence of isotopes was eventually confirmed after the mass spectrometry experiment was conducted on isotopic atoms.

Some elements exhibiting isotopy include:

  • 3517Cl and 3717Cl : Isotopes of Chlorine with mass numbers 35 and 37 respectively.

  • 11H (Hydrogen) and 21H (Deuterium) and 31H (Tritium) are isotopes of hydrogen with mass numbers - 1, 2 and 3 respectively.

John Dalton's first atomic theory was modified based on a discovery made by _____.

  • A. Sir Isaac Newton

  • B. Albert Einstein

  • C. Avogadro

  • D. Rutherford

  • E. Boyle and Charles

  • F. Gay Lussac


ANSWER: Rutherford

Dalton's first atomic theory states that:

All matter consists of tiny indivisible particles called atoms.

The above theory was modified based on a discovery made by Rutherford.

According to Rutherford, atoms can no longer be regarded as indivisible because they can be divided into the followings:

  • Protons

  • Neutrons

  • Electrons

Please read more on the modifications of Dalton's atomic theory here

Marital separation may also be termed as divorce.

  • A. True

  • B. False

Social Studies


Marital separation and divorce aren't the same thing. They have got different meanings.

Marital separation (separation in marriage) is said to occur when a husband live apart from his wife (or vice versa) because the marriage isn't just working for some reasons. In this regard, some persons are of the opinion that separation in marriage is a step to towards marital reconciliation.

Conversely, divorce is defined as the legal termination of marriage by a competent body. It is also called the dissolution of marriage.

Please read more on failed marriages and factors that causes it here

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the two-party system?

  • A. It is democratic in nature

  • B. There isn't a third party

  • C. The two parties are always dominant in the political terrain

  • D. The president must emerge from one of both parties

  • E. It encourages freedom of expression at the press

  • F. It presents a choice of candidates to the people


ANSWER: There isn't a third party

We do have a third party in a two-party system. However, these are obscure and will seldom wield a political position.

Meanwhile, understand that the 'third party' in a two-party system comprises of other political parties. These group of parties typically will not win an electoral office during election.

However, the characteristics in the above question gives us a clue to what a two-party system entail.

In a two-party system,  only 2 political parties are present in countries where they are practised.

  • A. True

  • B. False



In a two-party system, other political parties may be present but the main point is:

The 'other political parties' will rarely get political offices after the outcome of elections.

In simple terms, only two political parties dominate the political landscape in countries where they are practised.

In a country like Nigeria (as at 2018), most political offices are held by two political parties. These are:

  1. Peoples Democratic Party (PDP)

  2. All Progressive Congress (APC)

In United States of America, Democratic Party and the Republicans dominate the political system.

Please read on two-party system and its characteristics here

A thin continuous line is used for representing the followings except _____.

  • A. Intersections

  • B. Hatching lines

  • C. Long breaks

  • D. Diagonal line used to state plane surfaces

  • E. Leader lines

  • F. Back section lines

Basic Technology

ANSWER: Long breaks

A Thin Continuous Line is used for representing the followings:

  • Projection lines

  • Hatching lines

  • Construction lines

  • Short center lines

  • Measurement lines

  • Diagonal lines used to state plane surfaces

  • Intersections

  • Leader lines

  • Backside section lines

Long break lines are represented by the 'Continuous Thin Straight Zigzag Line'.

Please read more on type of lines in technical drawings here

In a food chain, the primary consumers are classified under trophic level  _____.

  • A. Zero

  • B. One

  • C. Two

  • D. Three

  • E. Four

  • F. Five



In an ecological pyramid, the trophic level of an organism is defined as that position which an organism occupies in a food chain or food web. These positions (trophic levels) include:

  • Trophic level 1 (producers)

  • Trophic level 2 (primary consumer)

  • Trophic level 3 (secondary consumer)

  • Trophic level 4 (tertiary consumers)

  • Trophic level 5 (decomposers)

Please read on food chain here

A legal process through which a citizen of one country gains citizenship into another country is termed _____.

  • A. International pass

  • B. Residential pass

  • C. Nationalization

  • D. Naturalization

  • E. Green card

  • F. Internationalization

Civic Education

ANSWER: Naturalization

Naturalization is a legal process through which a citizen of one country gains citizenship into another country.

Understand that an individual may have dual citizenship or even more. This can be achieved via three major ways. These are:

  1. Birth

  2. Naturalization

  3. Marriage

You can read more on the concepts of citizen resident here

A total estimation of a person's character and quality especially by those who know such person is termed _____.

  • A. Identity

  • B. Individual assessment

  • C. Behavior

  • D. Reputation

  • E. Principle

  • F. Cross examination

Civic Education

ANSWER: Reputation

Reputation can simply be defined as a complete or total estimation of a person's character and quality especially by those who know such person.

Meanwhile, understand that everyone has got a reputation 'but not everyone has got good reputation'. To this end, reputation can be put into two. These are:

  1. Good reputation

  2. Bad reputation

Please read more on reputation here

An accounting system focused primarily on a balanced debit and credit side is termed _____.

  • A. Ledger system

  • B. Journal system

  • C. Double entry system

  • D. Balance sheet system

  • E. Principle of accounting system

  • F. Balanced accounting system

Business Studies

ANSWER: Double entry system

The process of keeping an account with debit and credit sides is termed a double entry system or dual entry system. Understand that both sides of the account must be balanced.

The principle of double entry (also called the duality principle) states that 'for every debit entry made, there must be a corresponding credit entry'.

Please read on the principle of double entry here

With regards to money, which of the following statement is incorrect?

  • A. Money is crucial for the survival of every human being

  • B. Money is completely advantageous

  • C. Money is defined as anything that is generally accepted as a medium of exchange

  • D. Monopoly is said to exist when money and wealth exists in the hands of a few

  • E. Excess money in an economy can lead to inflation

  • F. When a person receives money that isn't commensurate with the job he or she had done, then that's underemployment

Business Studies

ANSWER: Money is completely advantageous

The above options gives a clue to what money is. However, money is not completely advantageous. Infact, money has got various disadvantages.

Please read on the disadvantages of money here

Vaccination involves a process of introducing pathogens or germs into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.

  • A. True

  • B. False

Basic Science


Another name for vaccination is 'immunization'. It is defined as process of introducing disease causing organisms (called pathogens or germs) into a person in order to prevent such person from the diseases they cause.

Vaccination can be given via injections, orally or nasally.

Please read on the concept of immunization or vaccination here

With regards to the human health, foreign bodies are best regarded as _____.

  • A. International bodies

  • B. Antilators

  • C. Antibodies

  • D. Antigens

  • E. Antibiotics

  • F. Antidotes

Basic Science

ANSWER: Antigens

The term 'foreign bodies' may also be regarded as pathogens, germs or antigens because they cause diseases. Infact, we are immunized or vaccinated against the diseases caused by various foreign bodies.

Please read on the importance of immunization here

Disease causing organisms are termed _____.

  • A. Pests

  • B. Pathogens

  • C. Vectors

  • D. Insects

  • E. Disease carriers

  • F. All the above options are correct

Basic Science

ANSWER: Pathogens

Any organism that causes disease is termed a pathogen or germ. An example of a pathogen is plasmodium; and it causes malaria.

In the above instance, understand that mosquitoes doesn't cause malaria, rather it carries the pathogen (plasmodium) that causes malaria. However, mosquitoes introduces the malaria parasite 'plasmodium' into the host's blood.

In the above paragraph, mosquitoes are regarded as vectors because they convey organisms that cause diseases (pathogen or germs).

Think of a pest as any organism that causes damage to crop plant. They could be insects or animals. Examples of pest include aphids, cotton strainers, monkeys, rodents, etc.

Please read on the pest of agricultural importance here

Earth's distance from the sun is approximately _____ million kilometers.

  • A. 147

  • B. 85

  • C. 40

  • D. 220

  • E. 309

  • F. 400



Earth's distance from the sun is 141.27 kilometres. This is an ideal distance because at this range, the sun isn't too close nor too far from the earth. This prevents extreme cold or heat from reaching the earth's biosphere.

A natural force that pulls a body towards the center of the earth is termed _____.

  • A. Centripetal force

  • B. Centrifugal force

  • C. Black hole

  • D. Average acceleration

  • E. Gravity

  • F. Momentum


ANSWER: Gravity

Gravity is defined as a natural force that pulls a body towards the center of the earth or another physical body having a greater mass.

The effects of gravity on the earth and it's inhabitants are crucial for life.

Please read more on the effects or importance of gravity here

The following are postural defects except _____.

  • A. Joint Legs

  • B. Forward Head Posture

  • C. Flatfoot

  • D. Genu Valgum

  • E. Uneven Shoulders

  • F. Bowlegs


ANSWER: Joint Legs

Joint legs aren't postural defects; K-legs are.

K-legs may also be termed knock knees or genu valgum.

Below is an image showing the postural defects -> bowlegs and k-legs:

Bowlegs and k-legs - Len Academy

Protruding abdomen - Len Academy

The above image (protruding abdomen) is not a postural defect.

  • A. True

  • B. False



Protruding abdomen is a postural defect. It can result from improper eating habits, frequent alcohol intake, sickness and a lack of exercise.

Other types of postural defects are uneven shoulders and knock knees.

Please read more on postural defects here

Protruding abdomen - Len Academy

The above image (protruding abdomen) is not a postural defect.

  • A. True

  • B. False


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Motivational Quotes

The first problem for all of us, men and women, is not to learn, but to unlearn - Gloria Steinem

The act of unlearning is an excellent form of learning. Infact, you will need the skills of unlearning if you intend to become an expert in your desired field.

Do yourself a favor by unlearning, learning and re-learning on a daily basis

If you don't design your own life plan, chances are you'll fall into someone else's plan. And guess what they have planned for you? Not much - Jim Rohn

There's something special about you. It doesn't matter whether you work for a company or someone; what matters is the amount of investment you've made on yourself.

Investing in yourself is the best life plan you can design for your future

Smile - Len Academy

Peace begins with a smile - Mother Teresa

Never underestimate the power of your smile. It can lift up the depressed, improve the mood of the downtrodden and even discourage a suicidal attack. Also remember that your smile makes you more beautiful

Smile always for your own good and the good of others

The only person who is educated is the one who has learned how to learn …and change - Carl Rogers

To perfect your learning process, you must learn, unlearn and re-learn. Infact, we all need to learn how to unlearn those vices we know about ourselves.

Do you know that seeing the devastating consequences of vices (perhaps in movies or real-life) can initiate the unlearning processes in one who does such?

Start where you are. Use what you have. Do what you can - Arthur Ashe

Start now. You've got all it takes to achieve greatness, so no environment can limit you. Just begin something, give in your best and don't stop.

Remember, don't stop giving your best if you truly desire greatness. Nothing can stop you except yourself

He who opens a school door, closes a prison - Victor Hugo

Education goes beyond the four walls of the classroom. Always attempt to promote education at every chance you've got. Begin with your family, friends and those you interact with. In addition, do not forget to educate others with your words and actions.

Close a prison door by sponsoring the education of someone in your lifetime

Quote on mistakes - Len Academy

How many mistakes have you made in your past? I'm quite sure they've made you better and wiser.

The point is: Great minds make more mistakes

I can't give you a sure-fire formula for success, but I can give you a formula for failure: 'Try to please everybody all the time' - Herbert Bayard Swope

You cannot serve two masters simultaneously. Endeavor to do things that pleases your creator and you'll become a happy person. To this end, you may have to do things (sometimes) that will displease friends, family members and even your very own body.

Success comes at a cost

What you're supposed to do when you don't like a thing is change it. If you can't change it, change the way you think about it. Don't complain - Maya Angelou

Don't always complain. There are some changes that can only be done by the creator, but you'll still need to put in some effort towards it.

You have always got a choice in every situation. If you wish a turnaround in a specific segment of your life, you must do something to change it. When the change temporarily seems beyond you, then you must change your perspective on that segment

When one door of happiness closes, another opens; but often we look so long at the closed door that we do not see the one which has been opened for us - Helen Keller

Happiness is a choice but there's also a time to be sorrowful. However, one way to be happy and joyful is by faithfully looking up to the creator and not the creature.

Be careful not to mourn like the hopeless

To the well-organized mind, death is but the next great adventure - J.K. Rowling

We shall all die because death is a constant phenomenon concerning life. Interestingly, the most important part isn't how it comes but what happens next whenever it comes. This is so because it marks the beginning of a more important journey.

Meanwhile, prepare for death by putting others first

There is no greater agony than bearing an untold story inside you - Maya Angelou

Agony and sufferings are inevitable. They will take a variety of forms in your life but regardless, sharing them with one who loves and appreciates you is highly recommended for your general wellbeing.

It's just like a painful boil filled with pus. When the pus is let-go, the pain eases out eventually

It is never too late to be what you might have been - George Eliot

When there's life, hope exist. From today henceforth, you can make right your wrongs only if you initiate the process.

To become your dream, search your mind now and you'll understand what to do

Yesterday is history, tomorrow is a mystery, today is a gift of God, which is why we call it the present - Bill Keane

Yesterday is gone so do not dwell much in it. It's what you do today that will determine the mystery of tomorrow. The point is: Today is the most important part of your life because it can destroy your history or make your mysterious tomorrow glorious

There are only two ways to live your life. One is as though nothing is a miracle. The other is as though everything is a miracle - Albert Einstein

Even the Holy Book stated that 'Faith without good work is dead'. The point is: 'Work as if your life depends on it and pray as if you can't achieve anything without it'. Remember, there's also a time to play, relax and rest.

Miracle exists but work is fundamental

Quote - Len Academy

It is indeed the life in your years that matters. Think about the questions below:

How many lives have you changed for the better? Have you destroyed any?

It is very crucial you positively impact upon the lives of others because for this reason were you created

Darkness cannot drive out darkness: only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate: only love can do that - Martin Luther King Jr

You must constantly realize that a candle light shines more when there's a greater darkness. Similarly, you must always put up positive values especially when everything seems to be going against you. It is at this moments of great challenges that your glorious excellence shall be revealed

Be the change that you wish to see in the world - Mahatma Gandhi

Change begins with you, hence you must lead by example.

Believe it or not, someone's watching your actions regardless your status in life.

Your actions can transform or change a person, group of persons, community, state, country and even the world (either positively or negatively).

Are people becoming better with you?

Be yourself; everyone else is already taken - Oscar Wilde

You are simply unique. Your DNA is unique to you.

Always understand that you are the best and only version of yourself. For this reason, you must be positive about yourself and the future regardless your present predicaments

Tell me and I'll forget; show me and I may remember; involve me and I'll understand - Chinese Proverb

Learning goes beyond mere explanations. The student must see, demonstrate, practice and practicalize whatever had been taught for learning to take place

Too often, we give children answers to remember rather than problems to solve - Roger Lewin

Think of life as an assessment. Our actions to all it throws at us will determine our destiny.

As parents and teachers, we must always endeavor to build the critical thinking of our children

What we learn with pleasure, we never forget - Alfred Mercier

Believe it or not, 'Learning should be fun' but sometimes, we end up learning the hard way.

The point is: We never forget whatever had been learnt happily or painfully

Keep on going, and the chances are that you will stumble on something, perhaps when you are least expecting it. I never heard of anyone ever stumbling on something sitting down - Charles F. Kettering

The best approach to success is to do something you believe in. Always 'do something positive' and great success will eventually come your way someday; especially when you least expect it

The difference between school and life? In school, you're taught a lesson and then given a test. In life, you're given a test that teaches you a lesson - Tom Bodett

Life itself is a school. It's where you learn from the successes and mistakes of others, including yours.

Understand that life is a process that exposes your wisdom and ignorance

If you think education is expensive, try ignorance - Andy McIntyre

Education is one of the most important gift in the universe. Infact, one without it lives in bondage.

Always learn daily (anywhere and everywhere) because education goes beyond the four walls of a classroom