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Academic Articles

Contents of the scrotum: Epididymis, Vas deferens, Spermatic cord and Cremaster muscle - Biology
Fun facts in Biology - Biology
Amazing facts on Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy - History
Functions of the network layer - ICT
Network layer of the OSI model - ICT
Transport layer and its characteristics - ICT
Session layer of the OSI model: Functions of session layer - ICT
What is presentation layer? Functions of presentation layer - ICT
Application layer and its functions - ICT
Three-way handshake in TCP - ICT
Stateless connection in UDP explained with examples - ICT
Transport Layer: Functions of layer 4 in networking - ICT
Transport layer: Layer 4 of the OSI model - ICT

Concerning cultism in Nigeria, the motto of the pyrates and magnificent seven was _____.

  • A. Against all odds

  • B. Against all limitations

  • C. Against all barriers

  • D. Against all enemies

  • E. Against all conventions

  • F. Against all evils

Civic Education

ANSWER: Against all conventions

In Nigeria, cultism begin in 1952 when Wole Soyinka (now a professor and nobel price winner) alongside six friends of his decided to distinguish themselves from other students in the prestigious University of Ibadan.

To achieve their aim, they called themselves the pyrates and magnificent seven and had the motto 'against all conventions'; with their logo comprising a skull and two limb bones crossed in the form of X.

Magnificent Seven - Len Academy
Photo of the Magnificent seven

Please read more on the history of Nigeria here

Regarding honesty, the following statements are correct except _____.

  • A. The act of honesty goes beyond not telling a lie

  • B.  Loyalty is a requirement for honesty

  • C. A honest person is truthful to himself and others

  • D. A person may say a truth and yet be dishonest

  • E. A person becomes dependable when he or she is honest

  • F. None of the above

Civic Education

ANSWER: None of the above

The answer is 'None of the above' because options A through E are correct in regards to honesty.

Honesty is the act of being truthful, first to yourself and then to others, regardless the end result.

Please read more on Honesty explained with its attributes here

Concerning informal essays, which of the following statement is correct?

  • A. They aren't personal

  • B. They require your name and signature

  • C. Excessive salutation may be used

  • D. Slangs cannot be used

  • E. Colloquialism are not required

  • F. They typically end with 'Yours Faithfully'


ANSWER: Excessive salutation may be used

Excessive salutation may be used in an informal essay. Also, idiomatic expressions, slangs and colloquialism may be used.

Understand that informal essays may not follow a specific structure and pattern when writing them.

Please read more on informal essays here

If two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with another body, then they are also in equilibrium with each other.

The above statement is the _____ law of thermodynamics.

  • A. Zeroth

  • B. First

  • C. Second

  • D. Third

  • E. Fourth

  • F. Fifth


ANSWER: Zeroth

The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics states that if two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with another body, then they are also in equilibrium with each other.

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics - Len Academy

Let's assume we have three bodies named X, Y and Z respectively. According to the zeroth law of thermodynamics, if X=Y and Z=Y, then X=Z.

Please read more on the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics here

The following comprises the solar system except _____.

  • A. Comets

  • B. Asteroids

  • C. Lightenings

  • D. Interplanetary medium

  • E. Meteoroids

  • F. Planets


ANSWER: Lightenings

Lightenings aren't constituents of the solar system.

The solar system is defined as a system comprising the sun, all the planets that revolve around it; including their moons, comets, meteoroids, asteroids and interplanetary medium.

We can therefore list the contents of the solar system into the followings:

  • Sun

  • Stars

  • Planets

  • Moons or Satellites

  • Comets

  • Meteoroids

  • Asteroids

  • Interplanetary medium

Note: The interplanetary medium are the small scattered particles that exists between the planets and other constituent bodies of the solar system. It consists mainly of gas and dust.

Please read more on the solar system here

Which of the following is a planet?

  • A. Makemake

  • B. Roundcube

  • C. Squareline

  • D. Plutanept

  • E. Stardime

  • F. None of the above


ANSWER: Makemake

Makemake is classified as one of the uncategorized planets. The others include:

  • Ceres
  • Eris
  • Haumea

However, we have 9 categorized planets. Beginning from the closest to the sun, these are:

  1. Mercury
  2. Venus
  3. Earth
  4. Mars
  5. Jupiter
  6. Saturn
  7. Uranus
  8. Neptune
  9. Pluto

Please read more on the solar system in geography here

Which of the following statement is false concerning soil erosion?

  • A. The top soil is moved from one point to another

  • B. Man is an agent that bring about soil erosion

  • C. Wind and water are natural agents of soil erosion

  • D. Sheet erosion is said to occur when the surface of a land is eroded at an unequal levels

  • E. Deforestation will increase the likehood of wind erosion

  • F. Rill erosion results in the formation of miniature dongas on land

Agricultural Science

ANSWER: Sheet erosion is said to occur when the surface of a land is eroded at an unequal levels

Sheet erosion - Len Academy

Sheet erosion occurs when the surface of a land is eroded at uniform or equal level.

Please read more on erosion here

Gully erosion - Len Academy

The above diagram shows a _____ erosion.

  • A. Wind

  • B. Sheet

  • C. Rill

  • D. Gully

  • E. Landslide

  • F. Crooked

Agricultural Science


Gully erosion typically occurs towards the bottom of a sloppy or hilly land as water (which runs downhill) creates numerous channels deep into the soil.

In a gully erosion, a gully head is formed at the bottom of the channel; and it eventually deepens and widens into the soil.

You can read more on types of erosion here

Costs generally treated as expenses in business are termed _____.

  • A. Fixed cost

  • B. Variable cost

  • C. Sunk cost

  • D. Direct cost

  • E. Private cost

  • F. Outlay cost


ANSWER: Outlay cost

Outlay cost are considered as expenditures in business. For this reason, they are treated as expenses.

You can read more on cost and types of cost here

When an entrepreneur pays cash (money) for materials needed for production, such money is termed as an _____ cost.

  • A. Accounting

  • B. Entrepreneurship

  • C. Economic

  • D. Outlay

  • E. Opportunity

  • F. Incremental


ANSWER: Accounting

Accounting costs are typically recorded as money spent on goods or rendered services or received services. They include the following instances:

  • Money paid for the purchase of raw materials

  • Money paid to workers

  • Money paid as rent

  • Money paid for electricity and so on

Please read more on cost and types of cost here

Which of the following is not a Nigerian acronym?

  • A. NBA

  • B. ISO

  • C. KAI

  • D. NAEC

  • E. NAPEP

  • F. MMIA

Social Studies


​​​​ISO is a global acronym that stands for International Organization for Standardization.

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international non-governmental organization comprising of national standard bodies that develops and publishes a wide range of proprietary, industrial, and commercial standards.

Note: A company can order copies of these standards and apply them to their operations in order to achieve certification of the ISO compliance and to ensure the company's business satisfies all internationally recognized procedures.

NBA, KAI, NAEC, NAPEP and MMIA are Nigerian acronyms and they represent the followings:

NBA: Nigerian Bar Association

KAI: Kick Against Indiscipline

NAEC: Nigeria Atomic Agency Commission

NAPEP: Nigerian Poverty Eradication Programme

MMIA: Muritala Muhammed International Airport

Please read more on Nigerian acronyms and their meanings here

Government may be defined as an agency or machinery or instrument that is established to manage the general welfare of the people that make up a country.

In the above statement, government is defined _____.

  • A. As a process

  • B. As an act of governing

  • C. As an institution of a state

  • D. As an academic field o study

  • E. As a political wheel

  • F. As a machine of movement


ANSWER: As an institution of a state

Although the term 'government' have got different definitions, the above question defines government as an institution of a state.

The institutions or agencies or machineries or instruments through which a government carry out the above definition in a country or state are:

  1. The Executive
  2. The Legislature
  3. The Judiciary

Please read more the various definitions of government here

Which of the following statement is false regarding the constitution?

  • A. No one is above the constitution, even the president or prime minister of a country

  • B. A constitution can be written or unwritten

  • C. The constitution consists of the fundamental human rights of citizens of a nation

  • D. The constitution does not necessarily allocate power to the different arms of government

  • E. The constitution upholds the people's sovereignty

  • F. A good constitution is neither too rigid not too flexible


ANSWER: The constitution does not necessarily allocate power to the different arms of government

A constitution is defined as the supreme law that specifies the government of a nation, the distribution of power to the different arms of government within the nation and the fundamental human rights of her citizens.

Please read more on the introduction to constitution here

Which of the following statement is false concerning illiteracy?

  • A. Medical issues like dyslexia and dysorthographia does not contribute to illiteracy in developing nations

  • B. A person who can read and write in Chinese Language but not in English Language is not considered as an illiterate

  • C. According to statistics, about 30% of the world population are illiterate

  • D. A lack of awareness can result to illiteracy

  • E. Cultures that prohibit the education of a girl child will promote illiteracy

  • F. Illiteracy generally has a negative effect on the societies or communities where they exist

Civic Education

ANSWER: Medical issues like dyslexia and  dysorthographia does not contribute to illiteracy in developing nations

Medical problems like dyslexia, dysorthographia, blindness, deafness and dumbness may contribute to illiteracy in developing countries.

  • Dyslexia implies a situation whereby children have difficulty in reading.

  • Dysorthographia implies a learning disability where children have difficulty in writing.

Please read more on illiteracy here

The following are consequences of illiteracy except _____.

  • A. Increased crime within the society

  • B. Increased rate of child marriage

  • C. Frustration

  • D. Illiterate people may lack knowledge of their fundamental human rights; and thus may not exercise it

  • E. Illiteracy promotes illiteracy

  • F. Illiteracy promotes cooperation although the people lack education

Civic Education

ANSWER Illiteracy promotes cooperation although the people lack education

The consequences of illiteracy in a nation or society are generally negative (bad).

In simple terms, the promotion of cooperation within the people of a nation is not a function of illiterate. In fact, people need to be knowledgeable on cooperation in order to better do things that foster it.

You can read more on the consequences of illiterate here

A government mandated maximum price for goods or services is termed _____.

  • A. Price height

  • B. Price maxima

  • C. Price ceiling

  • D. Price level

  • E. Price finale

  • F. Price top-zone


ANSWER: Price ceiling

Price ceiling is a government mandated maximum price for goods or services while price floor is a government mandated minimum price for goods or services.

Price ceiling and price floor are important concepts towards understanding the supply curve.

The quantity of supplied services or goods will increase as the price increases and they will decrease as the price decreases provided all other factors remain constant.

The above statement is attributed to the _____.

  • A. Law of price increase and price decrease

  • B. Law of product quantity

  • C. Law of demand

  • D. Law of supply

  • E. Law of quantity demanded and supplied in relation to price

  • F. Law of purchases on services and goods


ANSWER: Law of supply

The law of supply states that the quantity of supplied services or goods will increase as the price increases and they will decrease as the price decreases provided all other factors remain constant.

Some of the constant factors from the above law include:

  • The price of input resources

  • The kind of technology used during production

  • The number of suppliers

  • The number of buyers and so on

Please read more on supply law here

Biomedic wastes are also referred to as _____ wastes.

  • A. Hospital

  • B. Recyclable

  • C. Metabolic

  • D. Green

  • E. Radioactive

  • F. Electronic

Basic Science

ANSWER: Hospital

Another name for biomedic waste is hospital waste. They are wastes that contain (or will eventually contain) an infectious substance. They also include laboratory and hospital generated wastes from various tests and treatments.

Example of hospital (or biomedic) waste include blood, syringes, infusion kits and so on.

Sweat and urine are best considered as _____ waste.

  • A. Non-Biodegradable

  • B. Refuse

  • C. Recyclable

  • D. Metabolic

  • E. Green

  • F. Radioactive

Basic Science

ANSWER: Metabolic

Metabolic wastes are generated from the various metabolic (breaking down and building up) activities in living organisms. Examples include sweat, urine, carbon(IV)oxide and oxygen (in plants).

You can read more on types of waste here

_____ is defined as the process of collecting, processing, recycling and controlling any material considered as waste.

  • A. Waste collecting and processing

  • B. Waste processing and collecting

  • C. Waste recycling and control

  • D. Waste control and recycling

  • E. Waste treatment

  • F. Waste Management

Basic Science

ANSWER: Waste Management

The above definition relates to waste management. Wastes must be properly manage because:

  • They may block drainages thus resulting into flooding during rainy season

  • They generate bad smells which can be dangerous to health

  • They become home to various disease causing organisms

  • They constitute nuisance and eyesore

Please read more on waste management here

With regards to bookkeeping and accounting, which of the following statement is incorrect?

  • A. Accounting covers the entire practice of finance management

  • B. Bookkeeping is a branch of accounting

  • C. Bookkeeping is a necessary requirement when making financial statement of account

  • D. Bookkeepers record financial transaction in a chronological order

  • E. Accountant earn higher salaries than bookkeepers

  • F. Accounting reports assist business managers in making a more detailed decision


ANSWER: Bookkeeping is a necessary requirement when making financial statement of account

Bookkeeping is defined as all the activities that have to do with the orderly classification and recording of financial data or business transaction. However, it is not a necessary requirement when making financial statement of account.

Please read more on Bookkeeping vs Accounting here

Which of the following is a derived unit?

  • A. Kelvin

  • B. Meter

  • C. Newton

  • D. Candela

  • E. Mole

  • F. Ampere


ANSWER: Newton

Newton (N) is a derived unit for the quantity -> force.

Recall that force is a derived quantity. In fact, it's derived from the product of mass and acceleration. This therefore implies that kilogram per second square (kg/s2) is also a derived unit of force.

In summary, the derived unit of force is kg/s2 or N

Please read more on derived units here

The following are fundamental quantities except _____.

  • A. Power

  • B. Electric Current

  • C. Amount of Substance

  • D. Temperature

  • E. Time

  • F. Length



Power is not a fundamental quantity. (It is a derived unit).

Fundamental quantities are quantities dependent only on themselves and as a result, their units cannot be changed; nor is related to another fundamental unit.

Fundamental quantities are 7 in number.

Please read more on fundamental quantities here

The acronym ICPC means _____.

  • A. Independent Corrupt Practice Command
  • B. Independent Corrupt Practice Complaints
  • C. Independent Corrupt Practice Court
  • D. Independent Corrupt Practice and other related offences Commission
  • E. Independent Corrupt Practices Cooperation
  • F. Independent Corrupt Pactice Conduct

Social Studies

ANSWER: Independent Corrupt Practice and other related offences Commission

ICPC means Independent Corrupt Practice and other related offences Commission

Please read more on various Nigerian Acronyms here.

Which of the following is not an example of a chemical change?

  • A. The burning of wood
  • B. The melting of candle wax
  • C. The decomposition of food
  • D. The rotting of leaves
  • E. The lightening of a match stick
  • F. None of the above


ANSWER: The melting of candle wax

The melting of candle wax is a physical change and not a chemical change.

In a chemical change, a new substance is formed and whatever substance is formed can't be reversed to what formed it.

When candle melts, the composition of substances in the melted candle is still the same as that of original candle. The only difference is that it changed its state from solid to liquid. If left to cool for some time, the liquid candle wax will change its state back to solid. For this reason, both the solid candle and the melted candle wax will have the same composition and chemical formula.

A similar process happens when water is put in a freezer. The liquid water only changes its physical state to solid water (ice) but its composition and chemical formula remains the same (H2O).

Note: The melting of candle is a physical change while the burning of candle is a chemical change.

Please read more on the Differences between Physical and Chemical Changes here.

Which of the following is not an example of a chemical change?

  • A. The burning of wood
  • B. The melting of candle wax
  • C. The decomposition of food
  • D. The rotting of leaves
  • E. The lightening of a match stick
  • F. None of the above


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Motivational Quotes

The first problem for all of us, men and women, is not to learn, but to unlearn - Gloria Steinem

The act of unlearning is an excellent form of learning. Infact, you will need the skills of unlearning if you intend to become an expert in your desired field.

Do yourself a favor by unlearning, learning and re-learning on a daily basis

If you don't design your own life plan, chances are you'll fall into someone else's plan. And guess what they have planned for you? Not much - Jim Rohn

There's something special about you. It doesn't matter whether you work for a company or someone; what matters is the amount of investment you've made on yourself.

Investing in yourself is the best life plan you can design for your future

Smile - Len Academy

Peace begins with a smile - Mother Teresa

Never underestimate the power of your smile. It can lift up the depressed, improve the mood of the downtrodden and even discourage a suicidal attack. Also remember that your smile makes you more beautiful

Smile always for your own good and the good of others

The only person who is educated is the one who has learned how to learn …and change - Carl Rogers

To perfect your learning process, you must learn, unlearn and re-learn. Infact, we all need to learn how to unlearn those vices we know about ourselves.

Do you know that seeing the devastating consequences of vices (perhaps in movies or real-life) can initiate the unlearning processes in one who does such?

Start where you are. Use what you have. Do what you can - Arthur Ashe

Start now. You've got all it takes to achieve greatness, so no environment can limit you. Just begin something, give in your best and don't stop.

Remember, don't stop giving your best if you truly desire greatness. Nothing can stop you except yourself

He who opens a school door, closes a prison - Victor Hugo

Education goes beyond the four walls of the classroom. Always attempt to promote education at every chance you've got. Begin with your family, friends and those you interact with. In addition, do not forget to educate others with your words and actions.

Close a prison door by sponsoring the education of someone in your lifetime

Quote on mistakes - Len Academy

How many mistakes have you made in your past? I'm quite sure they've made you better and wiser.

The point is: Great minds make more mistakes

I can't give you a sure-fire formula for success, but I can give you a formula for failure: 'Try to please everybody all the time' - Herbert Bayard Swope

You cannot serve two masters simultaneously. Endeavor to do things that pleases your creator and you'll become a happy person. To this end, you may have to do things (sometimes) that will displease friends, family members and even your very own body.

Success comes at a cost

What you're supposed to do when you don't like a thing is change it. If you can't change it, change the way you think about it. Don't complain - Maya Angelou

Don't always complain. There are some changes that can only be done by the creator, but you'll still need to put in some effort towards it.

You have always got a choice in every situation. If you wish a turnaround in a specific segment of your life, you must do something to change it. When the change temporarily seems beyond you, then you must change your perspective on that segment

When one door of happiness closes, another opens; but often we look so long at the closed door that we do not see the one which has been opened for us - Helen Keller

Happiness is a choice but there's also a time to be sorrowful. However, one way to be happy and joyful is by faithfully looking up to the creator and not the creature.

Be careful not to mourn like the hopeless

To the well-organized mind, death is but the next great adventure - J.K. Rowling

We shall all die because death is a constant phenomenon concerning life. Interestingly, the most important part isn't how it comes but what happens next whenever it comes. This is so because it marks the beginning of a more important journey.

Meanwhile, prepare for death by putting others first

There is no greater agony than bearing an untold story inside you - Maya Angelou

Agony and sufferings are inevitable. They will take a variety of forms in your life but regardless, sharing them with one who loves and appreciates you is highly recommended for your general wellbeing.

It's just like a painful boil filled with pus. When the pus is let-go, the pain eases out eventually

It is never too late to be what you might have been - George Eliot

When there's life, hope exist. From today henceforth, you can make right your wrongs only if you initiate the process.

To become your dream, search your mind now and you'll understand what to do

Yesterday is history, tomorrow is a mystery, today is a gift of God, which is why we call it the present - Bill Keane

Yesterday is gone so do not dwell much in it. It's what you do today that will determine the mystery of tomorrow. The point is: Today is the most important part of your life because it can destroy your history or make your mysterious tomorrow glorious

There are only two ways to live your life. One is as though nothing is a miracle. The other is as though everything is a miracle - Albert Einstein

Even the Holy Book stated that 'Faith without good work is dead'. The point is: 'Work as if your life depends on it and pray as if you can't achieve anything without it'. Remember, there's also a time to play, relax and rest.

Miracle exists but work is fundamental

Quote - Len Academy

It is indeed the life in your years that matters. Think about the questions below:

How many lives have you changed for the better? Have you destroyed any?

It is very crucial you positively impact upon the lives of others because for this reason were you created

Darkness cannot drive out darkness: only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate: only love can do that - Martin Luther King Jr

You must constantly realize that a candle light shines more when there's a greater darkness. Similarly, you must always put up positive values especially when everything seems to be going against you. It is at this moments of great challenges that your glorious excellence shall be revealed

Be the change that you wish to see in the world - Mahatma Gandhi

Change begins with you, hence you must lead by example.

Believe it or not, someone's watching your actions regardless your status in life.

Your actions can transform or change a person, group of persons, community, state, country and even the world (either positively or negatively).

Are people becoming better with you?

Be yourself; everyone else is already taken - Oscar Wilde

You are simply unique. Your DNA is unique to you.

Always understand that you are the best and only version of yourself. For this reason, you must be positive about yourself and the future regardless your present predicaments

Tell me and I'll forget; show me and I may remember; involve me and I'll understand - Chinese Proverb

Learning goes beyond mere explanations. The student must see, demonstrate, practice and practicalize whatever had been taught for learning to take place

Too often, we give children answers to remember rather than problems to solve - Roger Lewin

Think of life as an assessment. Our actions to all it throws at us will determine our destiny.

As parents and teachers, we must always endeavor to build the critical thinking of our children

What we learn with pleasure, we never forget - Alfred Mercier

Believe it or not, 'Learning should be fun' but sometimes, we end up learning the hard way.

The point is: We never forget whatever had been learnt happily or painfully

Keep on going, and the chances are that you will stumble on something, perhaps when you are least expecting it. I never heard of anyone ever stumbling on something sitting down - Charles F. Kettering

The best approach to success is to do something you believe in. Always 'do something positive' and great success will eventually come your way someday; especially when you least expect it

The difference between school and life? In school, you're taught a lesson and then given a test. In life, you're given a test that teaches you a lesson - Tom Bodett

Life itself is a school. It's where you learn from the successes and mistakes of others, including yours.

Understand that life is a process that exposes your wisdom and ignorance

If you think education is expensive, try ignorance - Andy McIntyre

Education is one of the most important gift in the universe. Infact, one without it lives in bondage.

Always learn daily (anywhere and everywhere) because education goes beyond the four walls of a classroom