Topics in ICTFunctions of the network layer of the OSI model Network layer of the OSI model Transport layer of the OSI model and its characteristics Session layer of the OSI model: Functions of session layer What is presentation layer of the OSI model? Functions of presentation layer Application layer of the OSI model and its functions Three-way handshake in TCP Stateless connection in UDP explained with examples Transport Layer: Functions of layer 4 in networking Transport layer: Layer 4 of the OSI model
Academic Questions in ICT
What is the first step towards disabling automatic image download on WhatsApp?
A. Click on the three dots on the top right hand corner
B. Click on the WhatsApp logo
C. Click on the settings icon on the top right corner
D. Click on the settings icon located on the to top-center of the app
E. Click directly on the storage and data icon located on the top right corner
F. Click on the mobile data usage icon located on the top right corner
The followings are ways to conserve data on android phones except _____.
A. Turning on data saving mode
B. Activating background apps
C. Use of Wi-Fi to update apps
D. Disable automatic image download on WhatsApp
E. Watch low resolution videos on youtube
F. Utilizing a reputable data saving app on google playstore
Twitter was launched in _____.
The transport layer (also called layer 4) of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model of networking is solely responsible for connecting two computer devices before they can exchange information.
As an instance, this article is located on a server with an open port number of 443 (since it's an https protocol) as can be seen on the url of this webpage. Before you could read this article, your phone or computer device must first connect to the port number on the server where this information is stored.
This initial connection is a function of the transport layer or layer 4 of the OSI model. Importantly, this sharing of data between both communicating devices can be achieved via a connection (stateful) or connectionless (stateless) oriented data transfer.
The image below shows a client using the random port number '1025' to communicate with the server's unsecure web protocol (http) whose port number is 80.
The transport layer lies between the session layer (layer 5) and network layer (layer 3) of the OSI reference model. It therefore accepts data from the session layer (or the application layer in general), split it into smaller segments, and passes them to layer 3, the network layer. However, if the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) of layer 4 is utilized, then such transfer will ensure that all the data segments arrive at the correct order in which they were sent from both connecting devices.
Understand that data integrity is always assured if the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is utilized as the layer 4 protocol.
The transport layer functions by initiating either a connection or connectionless data transfer between two communicating devices. In this regard, one of these devices functions as the client (seeks for information) while the other acts as the server (gives out information).
The connection and connectionless data transfer by the layer 4 of the OSI model is achieved through two main protocols. These are:
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
User Datagram Protocol (UDP
Recall that the transport layer utilizes a service port addressing (or port addressing) in order to appropriately deliver segment to the correct services on both computers. To achieve this, it controls and monitors the sent segments through flow control and error control.
The transport layer can also increases the rate at which segments are sent via the multiplexing and demultiplexing processes.
The term segments refers to the Protocol Data Unit (PDU) at the transport layer.
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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.
Amazing facts in ICT
YouTube is a video-sharing platform which commenced operations on February 14, 2005 (Valentine's day). Three former PayPal employees -> Chad Hurley, Steve Chen and Jawed Karim created the YouTube service (as a dating app) until Google bought it in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion
Smoking near an Apple (Mac) computer voids the warranty.
When you add /4 to the end of Facebook's URL, it will take you to Mark Zuckerberg.
You can try it on you own; or better still, try the link below:
Apple iPad retina display is actually manufactured by Samsung
NOTABLE POINTS IN ICT
Computer hardware is the collection of physical parts of a computer system.
Physical parts of a computer are those parts that you can see and touch. It may also be referred to as the 'equipment of the computer'.
When the computer case is opened (with a screwdriver), one would see the different hardware components inside of it. It's important to state that some other hardware components are present outside the computer case; and these are termed peripherals.
Below are hardware components seen inside the computer case:
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)
Power supply Unit (PSU)
Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slots
Network Interface Card (NIC)
Random Access Memory (RAM)
Solid State Drive (SSD)
Optical Disc Drives (external present)
USB port, PS2 port, Ethernet port and other ports
Expansion Ports / Slots
Hardware components seen outside the computer case are called peripherals. The peripherals are grouped into the following:
Input devices: They provide information to the computer.
Output devices: Brings out information from the computer.
Storage devices: They store information or data.
Below are examples of some peripherals:
Touch Pad (input)
Universal Serial Bus (USB) flash drive or memory card (storage)
Hard disc drive (storage)