Topics in ICTFunctions of the network layer of the OSI model Network layer of the OSI model Transport layer of the OSI model and its characteristics Session layer of the OSI model: Functions of session layer What is presentation layer of the OSI model? Functions of presentation layer Application layer of the OSI model and its functions Three-way handshake in TCP Stateless connection in UDP explained with examples Transport Layer: Functions of layer 4 in networking Transport layer: Layer 4 of the OSI model
Academic Questions in ICT
What is the first step towards disabling automatic image download on WhatsApp?
A. Click on the three dots on the top right hand corner
B. Click on the WhatsApp logo
C. Click on the settings icon on the top right corner
D. Click on the settings icon located on the to top-center of the app
E. Click directly on the storage and data icon located on the top right corner
F. Click on the mobile data usage icon located on the top right corner
The followings are ways to conserve data on android phones except _____.
A. Turning on data saving mode
B. Activating background apps
C. Use of Wi-Fi to update apps
D. Disable automatic image download on WhatsApp
E. Watch low resolution videos on youtube
F. Utilizing a reputable data saving app on google playstore
Twitter was launched in _____.
The network layer is responsible for internetworking. It achieves this by connecting different networks through various routing protocols. Examples of routing protocols include: Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) and Routing Information Protocol (RIP).
Please read an introduction to the network layer here
The network layer encapsulates the data segments from the transport layer into packets. These packets are logically addressed and are eventually routed from a source device to a destination network.
Please read on the transport layer of the OSI model here
The network layer ensures that packets are routed from one network to another through it's Internet Protocol (IP) address. The IP address is a logical mechanism of addressing packets so that they can be appropriately routed by layer 3 devices and delivered to the appropriate destination network which may be located on the internet.
The creation of subnets or subnetworks is a function of the network layer. This implies that a single large network can be broken into smaller networks called subnets. Networking devices required to create subnets are routers and layer 3 switches.
You can read on the functions of the session layer here
The network layer dynamically creates a routing table for packet forwarding. Understand that packets can travel from a source to a destination device without the source getting an acknowledgement for a successful packet delivery. Such mode of network communication is termed as connectionless.
Please read more on connectionless (stateless) communication in UDP here
A properly implemented network at layer 3 will increase the speed at which packets are delivered. Such networks will also reduce transmission delays and transmission time. Also, jitter will be avoided.
You can read on the application layer and it functions here
The network layer forward packets to the data link layer for layer 2 addressing. These are encapsulated into frames and are physically addressed for local communication.
Please read on the presentation layer and its functions here
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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.
Amazing facts in ICT
YouTube is a video-sharing platform which commenced operations on February 14, 2005 (Valentine's day). Three former PayPal employees -> Chad Hurley, Steve Chen and Jawed Karim created the YouTube service (as a dating app) until Google bought it in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion
Smoking near an Apple (Mac) computer voids the warranty.
When you add /4 to the end of Facebook's URL, it will take you to Mark Zuckerberg.
You can try it on you own; or better still, try the link below:
Apple iPad retina display is actually manufactured by Samsung
NOTABLE POINTS IN ICT
Computer hardware is the collection of physical parts of a computer system.
Physical parts of a computer are those parts that you can see and touch. It may also be referred to as the 'equipment of the computer'.
When the computer case is opened (with a screwdriver), one would see the different hardware components inside of it. It's important to state that some other hardware components are present outside the computer case; and these are termed peripherals.
Below are hardware components seen inside the computer case:
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)
Power supply Unit (PSU)
Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slots
Network Interface Card (NIC)
Random Access Memory (RAM)
Solid State Drive (SSD)
Optical Disc Drives (external present)
USB port, PS2 port, Ethernet port and other ports
Expansion Ports / Slots
Hardware components seen outside the computer case are called peripherals. The peripherals are grouped into the following:
Input devices: They provide information to the computer.
Output devices: Brings out information from the computer.
Storage devices: They store information or data.
Below are examples of some peripherals:
Touch Pad (input)
Universal Serial Bus (USB) flash drive or memory card (storage)
Hard disc drive (storage)