Topics in ICTFunctions of the network layer of the OSI model Network layer of the OSI model Transport layer of the OSI model and its characteristics Session layer of the OSI model: Functions of session layer What is presentation layer of the OSI model? Functions of presentation layer Application layer of the OSI model and its functions Three-way handshake in TCP Stateless connection in UDP explained with examples Transport Layer: Functions of layer 4 in networking Transport layer: Layer 4 of the OSI model
Academic Questions in ICT
What is the first step towards disabling automatic image download on WhatsApp?
A. Click on the three dots on the top right hand corner
B. Click on the WhatsApp logo
C. Click on the settings icon on the top right corner
D. Click on the settings icon located on the to top-center of the app
E. Click directly on the storage and data icon located on the top right corner
F. Click on the mobile data usage icon located on the top right corner
The followings are ways to conserve data on android phones except _____.
A. Turning on data saving mode
B. Activating background apps
C. Use of Wi-Fi to update apps
D. Disable automatic image download on WhatsApp
E. Watch low resolution videos on youtube
F. Utilizing a reputable data saving app on google playstore
Twitter was launched in _____.
The transport layer appropriately addresses the respective port on both communicating device via its headers port addressing. For this reason, data segments are correctly directed to the listening ports on both communicating devices. This is termed port addressing of service point addressing. It is shown in the image below:
If TCP is utilized at this layer, data will be transfered in a reliable manner, thus guaranteeing bandwidth usage. In order to achieve this, the transport layer of the sending device uses the segmentation of data. These segmented data are called segments. The segments are reassembled into the appropriate data by the receiving device before passing them to its upper layers.
The transport layer prevents the sender from overwhelming the receiver with excessive data. The process through which it does this is termed flow control. Flow control involves a sliding window process (called windowing) in which data segments are sent in bytes. During windowing, the sending device begins by sending few segments at a time. If the network conditions are perfect, it gradually increases the number of segments sent, as far as the receiving device approves of them through an acknowledgement (ACK) segment. If the sender becomes overwhelmed with segments such that it starts dropping them, it sends a negative acknowledgement called NACK (or NAK). With this message, the sending device reduces the bytes of segment sent. This is the concept of flow control at the transport layer. It is shown in the image below:
The transport layer prevents the sending and reception of duplicate data segments by both communicating device. The process through which it achieves this is termed error control. Error control at layer 4 is a function of the Transmission Control Protocol's (TCP's) reliable connection.
The transport layer carries out multiplexing and demultiplexing functions. In this regard, the transport layer accept packets (from layer 3 below) and data (from layer 5 above). It differentiates the packets and data into segments (segmentation). It eventually send multiple segments simultaneously across the network depending on its available bandwidth. Multiplexing increase the rate of data transfer across the network.
Error detection and correction is a function of the transport layer. This is true because it computes a checksum and checks it against incoming data. If the data remained intact during transit, it sends an acknowledgement (ACK). Conversely, if the data was found to be corrupt, it sends a NACK to the sending device. The image below shows TCP's error detection and correction:
Understand that the lightweight User Datagram Protocol (UDP) does not carry out error detection and correction.
The transport layer brings about real-time communication when dealing with Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). This is a function of the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) in a process termed connectionless or stateless data communication. This is actually a good feature since it prevents uncessary echoes or hearing of oneself in voice conversations. In this regard, dropped segments during transmission aren't resent; and the words of the caller aren't clearly heard at that specific point in time.
Meanwhile, recall that the transport layer in networking is famously termed as the layer 4 of the OSI model. The above listed functions are performed by two major protocols present at these layers. They are:
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
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Alfred Ajibola is a Medical Biochemist, a passionate Academician with over 7 years of experience, a Versatile Writer, a Web Developer, a Cisco Certified Network Associate and a Cisco CyberOps Associate.
Amazing facts in ICT
YouTube is a video-sharing platform which commenced operations on February 14, 2005 (Valentine's day). Three former PayPal employees -> Chad Hurley, Steve Chen and Jawed Karim created the YouTube service (as a dating app) until Google bought it in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion
Smoking near an Apple (Mac) computer voids the warranty.
When you add /4 to the end of Facebook's URL, it will take you to Mark Zuckerberg.
You can try it on you own; or better still, try the link below:
Apple iPad retina display is actually manufactured by Samsung
NOTABLE POINTS IN ICT
Computer hardware is the collection of physical parts of a computer system.
Physical parts of a computer are those parts that you can see and touch. It may also be referred to as the 'equipment of the computer'.
When the computer case is opened (with a screwdriver), one would see the different hardware components inside of it. It's important to state that some other hardware components are present outside the computer case; and these are termed peripherals.
Below are hardware components seen inside the computer case:
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)
Power supply Unit (PSU)
Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slots
Network Interface Card (NIC)
Random Access Memory (RAM)
Solid State Drive (SSD)
Optical Disc Drives (external present)
USB port, PS2 port, Ethernet port and other ports
Expansion Ports / Slots
Hardware components seen outside the computer case are called peripherals. The peripherals are grouped into the following:
Input devices: They provide information to the computer.
Output devices: Brings out information from the computer.
Storage devices: They store information or data.
Below are examples of some peripherals:
Touch Pad (input)
Universal Serial Bus (USB) flash drive or memory card (storage)
Hard disc drive (storage)